What happened with chocolate through history?
Many cultures have made chocolate as a part of their traditions. It was believed that cocoa made stronger faith, improved health, provided strength and contributed to the romance and passion. Formerly it was only available to higher caste and royal families, now it is accessible to everyone.
It is assumed that cacao powder originates from Amazon and that is old 4000 years.
600, Maya civilization-
Mayas call cacao tree cacahuaquchtl, which meant “tree”. The word chocolate comes from the Maya’s word xocoatl which means “bitter water”. In Maya’s culture, cocoa pods symbolize life and fertility. However, nothing was more important that that! They even painted cocoa fruits on the walls of their palaces.
1000, Grain – Cash
People from Central America used cocoa beans as currency. For one Zontli you could get 400 cacao beans, while for one Xiquipilli you can get 8000 beans.
1200, Aztec Civilization-
The Aztecs believed that cocoa was given to them by God Quetzalcoatl, who stole the cacao tree from paradise. Maya and Aztecs believed that it was an elixir of health. They drink it cold and bitter. Sugar was unknown to Aztecs, but they added various flavors like hot peppers and even flour! The Aztecs believed that wisdom and strength come from eating this fruit. Their Emperor Montezuma was loved cocoa drink so each day he drank 50 cups.
1492, Columbus’s return-
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel were given many unknown and wonderful things by Columbus. However, they weren’t interested in darks beans of cocoa.
1513, Buying Slaves-
Hernando de Oviedo Valdez a member of the Pedrarias Avila’s expedition reported that he bought slaves for 100 cocoa beans, prostitutes and for 4 cocoa beans he got the rabbit, which they ate for dinner. Around the same time, and adopted the name of the drink chocolatl words Maja xocoatl (chocolate) and Asteke word for water or hot beverage.
1519 The Spanish Bank-
Hernando Cortez, who conquered the part of Mexico in 1519, tasted the cocoa, but he was not particularly enthusiastic about it. He was more interested in the value of cocoa as means of payment. He immediately declared the cocoa plantations under Spanish jurisdiction, and began “growing” money.
1528 Spanish Secret-
Cortez presented cocoa beans to Spanish court. He also had the equipment for making chocolate.
Cortez mixed the bitter drink with sugar and soon it became very popular among Spaniards. They also added different flavors such as cinnamon, vanilla etc. Spanish guarded the secret of chocolate, about 100 years from the rest of the world! But there was no secret that enjoying in the chocolate worked as an aphrodisiac.
1544, Dominican Monks-
Spanish monks, who were entrusted with processing of cocoa beans, finally they divulge a secret. Not long after, chocolate spread across Europe as a delicacy and healthy food.
1569, Church of Rome-
Pope Pius V did not like chocolate. However, he allowed drinking of it only on Fridays.
1579, English Pirates-
English pirates who stole Spanish ships with cocoa, burned cocoa beans since they thought it was the ship’s waste.
1585, Chocolate on the Market-
The first ship with the cocoa sold on the market in Spain in 1587.
1609, Chocolate Comes to the Literature-
The first book completely devoted came from Mexico.
1615 Fruitful Marriage-
Anne of Austria, daughter of Spanish King Philip II married Louis XIII, and presented him chocolate.
1657 first time in London-
Some Frenchman opened the first chocolate shop in London. The London chocolate houses became a meeting place of a new London elite luxury. The first chocolate house is advertised it as a great west-Indian drink.
1662 Rome had a Different Opinion-
The Roman Church pronounced chocolate as a magic potion. Cardinal Brancaccio said “liquidum non frangit jejunum” what means Chocolate is not for use”.However, consumers didn’t give any importance to it. Only during the Easter was permitted the consumption of chocolate.
1670,The fate of a Traveler-
Helmsman Pedro Bravo do los Camerinos decided to break with the navigation and researches, so he settled in the Philippines, where he spent the rest of his life breeding of cocoa plantations. Thus his foundations were the largest plantation at that time.
1671 Happy Accident-
While Duke of Plesslis-Praslin was waiting for his dessert, an accident happened in the kitchen. When almonds coated with sugar were served, he liked it so much that he gave it his name. Since then this sweet has undergone many changes but the original name has remained.
1674 Mandatory Cookies-
London Coffee shop Mill and Tobacco Roll served chocolate cookies and chocolate rolls.
In November 1667, Brazil got the first cacao plantation in the country.
The appearance of chocolate in Germany made Fredrik I of Prussia to introduce taxes to it. So chocolate was taxed as imported product. Everyone that wanted to enjoy in the chocolate had to pay for a permit.
1711 Chocolate arrives to Vienna-
Emperor Charles VI moved his palace from Madrid to Vienna. So the chocolate came to the blue Danube, as well.
1720 Italian Masters-
Italian pastry from Florence and Venice, gained a reputation due to chocolate and masters of it were welcomed in France, Germany and Switzerland.
1730 Mass Production-
With the emergence of steam power the processing of cocoa mechanism speeded up.
1747 Frederick III of Prussia-
Frederick the Great prohibits trade with chocolate in his kingdom. Who wanted to deal with chocolate had to pay a high price, so only the wealthy could consume it.
1755 Chocolate came to America-
relatively late, certainly not before the 1755, chocolate came to America
1765 The first chocolate manufacturers in America- It was established somewhere around New England.
1780 Spain again-
The first machines for the production of chocolate were made in Barcelona.
1792 factory in Berlin-
In Germany, the Josty brotherrs opened a chocolate shop and made the boom by selling Swiss chocolate. Later, they opened the Berlin’s factory.
1797 Always take chocolate with You-
Goethe had no confidence in the Swiss hoteliers and always when he was on the road he was taking a full baggage of chocolate.
1800 The industrialization of Chocolate-
Antoine Brutus Menier built the first industrial machinery for the manufacture of chocolate.
Chocolate that we know today was created thanks to Dutchman Conrad J. van Houten, who in 1828 patented hydraulic press for crushing cocoa beans from which cocoa powder was created.
1847 the real Chocolate-
in 1847 Englishman Joseph Fry discovered that cocoa powder can be mixed with sugar and melted cocoa butter. That was the first finished chocolate confection, which gained great popularity around the world.
Swiss Daniel Peter has experimented with milk as an ingredients of chocolate, so in 1875 he made the first milk chocolate. As the finest craftsmen in making chocolate, the Swiss have perfected its production. Therefore, in 1879 Rudolf Lindt (Lindt is one of the most famous chocolate factories) made a chocolate that melts in your mouth, “chocolat fondant” in which we enjoy today.
1849 Chocolate Exhibition-
The first exhibition was held in Birmingham, England.
1875 The era of milk Chocolate-
After eight years of experimentation, Daniel Peter offered his first milk chocolate. Henri Nestlé has improved the production of milk chocolate and applied his invention – condensed milk.
1900 The change in Leadership-
Spain, which was first introduced chocolate to Europe, fell into oblivion. Germans consumed the most chocolate, followed by Americans, French and British. However, Switzerland became the most important country in chocolate production.
1913 filled Chocolates-
Jules Sechaud from Montreux, Switzerland, invented the process of filling the chocolate.
1938 The Second World War-
The U.S. government has noted the important role of chocolate in the military. Shiploads were reserved for chocolate, which gave the soldiers strength and courage. Today, every soldier gets 3-4 ounces of chocolate.